Improving Learning in a Professional Context provides vital new evidence on exactly how teachers learn to be teachers; evidence that is likely to affect and influence the profession for many years to come. Demonstrating that learning in schools is more than simple 'cognitive' knowledge of the curriculum and teaching skills, this book suggests that we need to pay more attention to the emotional, relational, ethical, material, structural and temporal dimensions of the teaching experience. Based on empirical research, including interviews with new teachers, by teachers themselves, on a scale rarely seen before, the book reveals the complexity of learning in a professional context and gives some basic truths about what really matters in teaching.
This book offers a fundamental critique of policy but also the prospect of constructive change for the better as the authors present accounts of what the 'real' experience of beginning teaching may be like, as well as lines for future research. Key questions are answered, such as:
Becoming a teacher is a transformative search by individuals for their teaching identities and, with this book, teachers and teacher educators can at last begin to understand this complex developmental process.
IMPROVING LEARNING SERIES
The Improving Learning series supports evidence-informed professional practice and policy-making in education. Each book showcases findings from the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) - one of the world's largest coordinated educational research initiatives. For those with a commitment to the improvement of outcomes for learners, these books are essential reading.
Emerging adulthood has been identified as an important developmental stage, characterised by identity exploration, instability and open possibilities, in which young people are no longer adolescents but have not yet attained full adult status. This ground-breaking edited collection is the first book to offer a comprehensive overview of emerging adulthood in a European context, which includes a comparison of findings in 9 different European countries and the USA.
Each chapter, written by a leading European researcher, describes the socio-demographic characteristics of emerging adults, reviews the state of the field, synthesises new findings, and provides suggestions for how to move forward in research, interventions, and policy. The book examines how the traditional domain markers of adulthood, such as finishing education and caring for children, have changed. It also highlights how different factors such as gender, working status, living arrangements, romantic status and parental educational background affect the importance assigned to each set of adulthood criteria. The theory of emerging adulthood is further developed by considering how Arnett's emerging adulthood, Erikson's early adulthood, and Robinson's theory of early adult crisis fit together, and data is provided to support the new framework given.
The book will be of great interest to researchers interested in these developmental transitions, and to advanced students of Emerging Adulthood on developmental psychology and lifespan courses, and related disciplines.
by Michael G. Dyer Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of research within Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerned with the comprehension and generation of natural language text. Comprehension involves the dynamic construction of conceptual representations, linked by causal relationships and organized/indexed for subsequent retrieval. Once these conceptual representations have been created, comprehension can be tested by means of such tasks as paraphrasing, question answering, and summarization. Higher-level cognitive tasks are also modeled within the NLP paradigm and include: translation, acquisition of word meanings and concepts through reading, analysis of goals and plans in multi-agent environments (e. g. , coalition and counterplanning behavior by narrative characters), invention of novel stories, recognition of abstract themes (such as irony and hypocrisy), extraction of the moral or point of a story, and justification/refutation of beliefs through argumentation. The robustness of conceptually-based text comprehension systems is directly related to the nature and scope of the knowledge constructs applied during conceptual analysis of the text. Until recently, conceptually-based natural language systems were developed for, and applied to, the task of narrative comprehension (Dyer, 1983a; Schank and Abelson, 1977; Wilensky, 1983). These systems worked by recognizing the goals and plans of narrative characters, and. using this knowledge to build a conceptual representation of the narrative, xx UNDERSTANDING EDITORIAL TEXT including actions and intentions which must be inferred to complete the representation. A large portion of text appearing in newspapers and magazines, however, is editorial in nature.
For a happy, peaceful and meaningful life it is essential that we find time for our health, family and personality development. We cannot ignore our relationships in society and the spiritual enlightenment. The Author has made an attempt to cover all these aspects in this book. It is hoped that this simple book will inspire readers to adopt the right lifestyle for their total development. Thus they will not only add happiness to their own life but will improve their relationships with family, relatives, neighbours, society and in the long run serve the nation better.
Theorists, scholars, and critics usually consider literary works to be fixed objects, assuming that any variations in the text of a work should be stabilized, reduced, eliminated. John Bryant urges that these variations create valuable records of the interactions between the artist and society. Preprint revisions, revised editions, adaptations for film, and expurgations for children are among the many forms of flux that shape literary works and position them relative to their audiences. Fully understanding the life of a literary work in its cultural situation requires recognizing the fluidity of text, and the present work makes the first coherent theoretical, critical, and editorial approach to the study of revision.
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